Saturday, May 17, 2008

The Mass as it was in the City of Rome, part 4

A 6th-7th century mosaic from the Church of Agios Demetrios in Thessaloniki (aka Thessalonica or Salonica), Greece depicting St. Demetrius with donors (one of the few works of Byzantine art to have survived the Iconoclast Controversy). Note particularly the attire of the Bishop on the left.

VII: THE GRADUAL (RESPONSUM) (Psalm 118 [117]: 24; 1, 2, 3, 4, 16, 22, 26)

After the Subdeacon had finished reading the Epistle, he goes down the Ambo while a Cantor takes away his planeta, goes up and sings the Gradual:

Cantor: "Haec est dies quam fecit Dominus; exsultemus, et laetemur in ea."
Choir: "Haec est dies..."
Cantor: "Confitemini Domino quoniam bonus, quoniam in saeculum misericordia ejus."
Choir: "Haec est dies..."
Cantor: "Dicat nunc Israel: Quoniam bonus, quoniam in saeculum misericordia ejus."
Choir: "Haec est dies..."
Cantor: "Dicat nunc domus Aaron: quoniam in saeculum misericordia ejus."
Choir: "Haec est dies..."
Cantor: "Dicant nunc qui timent Dominum: quoniam in saeculum misericordia ejus."
Choir: "Haec est dies..."
Cantor: "
Dextera Domini fecit virtutem; dextera Domini exaltavit me: dextera Domini
fecit virtutem.
Choir: "Haec est dies..."
Cantor: "Lapidem quem reprobaverunt aedificantes, hic factus est in caput anguli."
Choir: "Haec est dies..."
Cantor: "Benedictus qui venit in nomine Domini: benediximus vobis de domo Domini."
Choir: "Haec est dies..."

(Cantor: This is the day which the Lord hath made: let us be glad and rejoice therein.
Choir: This is the day...
Cantor: Give praise to the Lord, for he is good: for his mercy endureth for ever.
Choir: This is the day...
Cantor: Let Israel now say, that he is good: that his mercy endureth for ever.
Choir: This is the day...
Cantor: Let the house of Aaron now say, that his mercy endureth for ever.
Choir: This is the day...
Cantor: Let them that fear the Lord now say, that his mercy endureth for ever.
Choir: This is the day...
Cantor: The right hand of the Lord hath wrought strength: the right hand of the Lord hath exalted me: the right hand of the Lord hath wrought strength.
Choir: This is the day...
Cantor: The stone which the builders rejected; the same is become the head of the corner.
Choir: This is the day...
Cantor: Blessed be he that cometh in the name of the Lord. We have blessed you out of the house of the Lord.
Choir: This is the day...)

Fresco of the Crucifixion in Santa Maria Antiqua, Rome dating from between 741 to 752, during the reign of Pope Zachary (papacy 741-752). The style of the fresco points to Byzantine influence (parts of Italy were under the control of the Byzantine Empire during this time period, and thus, had influenced it and the Church of Rome in many ways); Pope Zachary was, in fact, born of a Greek family in Bari, which was then under the Byzantine Catepanate of Italy.

IX: THE ALLELUIA or TRACT (1 Cor. 5: 7-8)

Another singer then comes up and sings the Alleluia or the Tract; if when neither one nor the other is appointed, only the respond is sung.

Cantor: "Alleluia, Alleluia. Pascha nostrum immolatus est Christus."
Choir: "Alleluia, Alleluia. Pascha nostrum..."
Cantor: "Epulemur in azymis sinceritatis et veritatis."
Choir: "Alleluia, Alleluia. Pascha nostrum..."

(Cantor: Alleluia, Alleluia. Christ our Pasch is sacrificed.
Choir: Alleluia, Alleluia. Christ our Pasch...
Cantor: Let us feast with the unleavened bread of sincerity and truth.
Choir: Alleluia, Alleluia. Christ our Pasch...)

A 6th-century Ivory Diptych from N. Italy. Most likely used as a Bible cover.

X: THE GOSPEL (Mark 16: 1-8)

At the end of the Alleluia, the Deacon who will read the Gospel will kiss the Pope's feet while the Pope says to him: "Dominus sit in corde tuo et in labiis tuis."
(May the Lord be in your heart and in your lips.)

The Deacon then goes up the Altar and takes the Gospel Book and walks to the Ambo while the Pope rises from his throne and with him, all the clergy. Two District-Subdeacons walk before the Deacon, one on his right and one on his left. One of them carries a Censer received from the Assistant-Subdeacon, and before them walk two Acolytes carrying Candlesticks. On coming to the Ambo, the Acolytes part before it, and the Subdeacons and the Deacon pass between them.

The Subdeacon who is not carrying the Censer then turns towards the Deacon, and offers him his left arm on which to rest the Gospel Book, in order that the former may open it with his right hand at the place where the mark for reading was put; then, slipping his finger into the place where he has to begin, the Deacon goes up to read, while the two Subdeacons and the Taperers turn back to stand before the step coming down from the Ambo:

Deacon: "Dominus vobiscum."
R: "Et cum spiritu tuo."
Deacon: "Sequentia Sancti Evangelii secundum Marcum."
R: "In illo tempore: Maria Magdalene, et Maria Jacobi, et Salome emerunt aromata, et venientes ungerent Jesum. Et valde mane una sabbatorum, veniunt ad monumentum, orto jam sole. Et dicebant ad invicem: "Quis revolvet nobis lapidem ab ostio monumenti?" Et respicientes viderunt revolutum lapidem. Erat quippe magnus valde. Et introeuntes in monumentum viderunt juvenem sedentem in dextris, coopertum stola candida, et obstupuerunt. Qui dicit illis: "Nolite expavescere: Jesum quaeritis Nazarenum, crucifixum: surrexit, non est hic, ecce locus ubi posuerunt eum. Sed ite, dicite discipulus eius, et Petro, quia praecedit vos in Galilaeam: ibi eum videbitis, sicut dixit vobis." At illae exeuntes, fugerunt de monumento: invaserat enim eas tremor et pavor: et nemini quidquam dixerunt: timebant enim."
R: Benedictus qui venit in nomine Domini.

(Deacon: The Lord be with you.
R: And with your Spirit.
Deacon: The continuation of the Holy Gospel according to Mark.
R: Glory to You, O Lord.
Deacon: And when the sabbath was past, Mary Magdalen, and Mary the mother of James, and Salome, bought sweet spices, that coming, they might anoint Jesus. And very early in the morning, the first day of the week, they come to the sepulchre, the sun being now risen. And they said one to another: "Who shall roll us back the stone from the door of the sepulchre?" And looking, they saw the stone rolled back (for it was very great). And entering into the sepulchre, they saw a young man sitting on the right side, clothed with a white robe: and they were astonished. Who saith to them: "Be not affrighted; you seek Jesus of Nazareth, who was crucified: he is risen, he is not here, behold the place where they laid him. But go, tell his disciples and Peter that he goeth before you into Galilee; there you shall see him, as he told you." But they going out, fled from the sepulchre. For a trembling and fear had seized them: and they said nothing to any man; for they were afraid.
R: Blessed is He that comes in the name of the Lord.)


The Dismissal of the Catechumens was once done at this point. During the days of Pope St. Gregory (who mentioned this form of dismissal in passing at his Dialogues, where he tells the story of two nuns who died excommunicate and buried inside the church rising from their tombs and leaving when the Deacon says the Dismissal), the Deacon called out: "Si quis non communicat, det locum!" (If any one does not communicate, let him go away!)

This had disappeared by the time of Ordo I, but at Scrutiny Masses the deacon still called out here: "

Let the catechumens depart! Whoever is a catechumen, let him depart! Let all catechumens go out of the doors!"

The Pope then says: "Pax tibi." (Peace to you), then:

Pope: "Dominus vobiscum."
R: "Et cum spiritu tuo."
Pope: "Oremus."

(Pope: The Lord be with you.
R: And with your spirit.
Pope: Let us pray.)

The Deacon goes down the Ambo, then the Subdeacon who first opened the Gospel Book previously takes it from him and gives it to the other Subdeacon standing beside him. The latter, holding the Book before his breast, with his hands covered with the planeta, offers it to kissed by all who stand in the quire in the order of rank. Afterwards an Acolyte carrying the Book's case comes and the Subdeacon puts the Book inside that it may be sealed. But the Acolyte of the same district as that to which the Subdeacon belongs carries it back to the Lateran.



(Excerpt from the Catholic Encyclopedia article THE GOSPEL IN THE LITURGY)

...The "Dominus vobiscum" at the beginning, the announcement of the Gospel ("Sequentia sancti Evangelii" etc.), and the answer, "Gloria tibi Domine", are also mentioned by the sixth-century Germanus (Ep. 1, P. L., LXXII, 91). At the end of the Gospel the people answered, "Amen", or "Deo Gratias", or "Benedictus qui venit in nomine Domini" (Durandus, "Rationale", IV, 24; Beleth, "Rationale", XXXIX; St. Benedict's Rule, XI). Our present answer, "Laus tibi Christe", seems to be a later one (Gihr, "Messopfer", 444)...

(adapted from the Catholic Encyclopedia article CATECHUMEN)

Assemblies of Catechumens were called "Scrutinies" (examination and presentation of the candidates), and were seven in number:

-At the first scrutiny the Candidates gave in their names. After the collect of the Mass, and before the lessons, the ceremony of exorcism was performed over them. This was done at all the scrutinies except the last, by the exorcists, and then the priest signed them with the cross and laid hands upon them. It is interesting to know that the words at present used in baptism "Ergo, maledicte diabole", etc. belonged to the exorcism, and the words "Aeternam ac justissimam pietatem" etc. belonged to the laying on of hands.

-At the third scrutiny, the candidates received the Gospel, the Symbol (Creed, recited both in Greek and Latin), and the Our Father. Each of these was accompanied by a short explanation. For example, St. Augustine has left four Sermons, "De Oratione Dominica, Ad Competentes", and three on the delivery of the Symbol. In the pre-conciliar Missal the Mass of the Wednesday of the fourth week in Lent has a lesson in addition to the ordinary Epistle, or rather Lesson. The former is taken from the Ezekiel 36, the latter from Isaiah 50; and both (together with the Introit and the two Graduals, and the Gospel, the healing of the man born blind, John 9) have obvious reference to the "great scrutiny".

-The seventh scrutiny took place on Holy Saturday, apart from the Mass, as there was formerly no Mass for that day. The priest himself performed the ceremony of the Exorcism and the Ephphetha (Mark 7). Then followed the anointing on the breast and back. The candidates pronounced the three-fold renunciation of Satan and recited the Creed.

The actual initiation, (baptism, confirmation, and Communion) took place at the Paschal Mass, at which the neophytes assisted for the first time, being now no longer mere catechumens. But until the Sunday after Easter they were considered as "infants", receiving further instruction, especially on the sacraments which had lately been conferred upon them. Finally, on Low Sunday (Dominica in Albis depositis) when the Introit of the Mass speaks of the "new born babes" (1 Peter 2:2), they put off their white garments, and were henceforth counted among the regular "faithful".


(From E.G. Atchley's 'Ordo Romanus Primus')

The creed was neither sung nor said during mass at Rome until the time of Benedict VIII (1012-1024). Berno, abbot of Reichenau, relates that the emperor, Henry II, inquired in his presence of the Romans why they never recited the creed after the Gospel; and that he heard them reply that they did not do so as the Church of Rome had not been infected by any taint of heresy, and therefore that they did not need to recite it.
But the emperor did not desist until he had obtained the consent of the Pope to have the creed sung at public mass. 'But whether they still keep up this custom we cannot affirm, because we are not sure.'

Some writers have thought that Leo III introduced this practice, because in 809 he told the ambassadors of Charlemagne that he had given permission indeed for singing it, but not for adding to it or taking from it (alluding to the introduction of the Filioque clause). "We, however, do not sing it, but read it, and in reading teach," he says again; and he goes on to advise that the practice of singing it be given up gradually, 'because in our Church it is not sung.'

Leo was referring not to ordinary Masses, but to the recitation of the Creed, which was done in Greek and in Latin at the third Scrutiny before solemn Baptism. The Vllth Roman Ordo giving the Baptismal rites and ceremonies of the ninth century, describes the mode of reciting it in Greek by the word decantando, but in Latin by dicitur.

As evidence of the feeling of reserve, which prevented any public use of the Creed for so long, the intention of Sozomen to transcribe that of Nicaea for his History may be instanced. He was dissuaded from so doing by godly and learned friends, who represented to him that such matters ought to be kept secret, only for disciples and their instructors; and probably his book would fall into the hands of the unlearned.

1 comment:

paramedicgirl said...

Patrick, this is pretty interesting stuff! Glad to see you are keeping your blog up. You're on the Salve Regina blogroll again. (If I notice blogs are dormant, for a few months in a row, I tend to remove them)So thanks for stopping by and letting me know you are up and running again!