Sunday, May 11, 2008

The Mass as it was in the City of Rome, part 2

Emperor Justinian I ( 482 or 483-565) with Bishop Maximianus of Ravenna. You can see Bishop Maximianus wear a planeta and a pallium with the Deacons wearing a Dalmatic.


The Pope then makes his way to the Sacristy, supported by the Deacons who received him when he dismounted, and sits at the Sedan-chair (the one prepared by the Lay Chamberlain). The Deacons salute him and go out of the Sacristy and vest before the doors.
The Deacon who will read the Gospel makes ready the Gospel Book (the seal of which has been unlocked) which an Acolyte, or two, if the Book used is larger, holds for him with his hands covered by the planeta (also known as paenula, the ancestor of the present-day chasuble).
The Acolyte/s take the Book into the Presbytery before the Altar and hands it to the Subdeacon-attendant who places the Book honorably into the Altar with his hands covered with the planeta.
Meanwhile, after the deacons go out of the Sacristy, there remain with the Pontiff the Chancellor, the Secretary, the Chief Counsellor, the District-Notaries, and the Subdeacon-Attendant who bears the Pope's pallium with its pins on his left arm covered with the planeta.
The Clerical Chamberlain receives the vestments folded up from the Door-warden and brings them.
Near the head of the bench the district-subdeacons take the vestments to put on the Pope according to their order:
-Linen (Lineum)
-Girdle (Cingulum)
-Anagolaium (also Anabolagium)
-a linen Dalmatic (Lineam Dalmaticam)
-the larger Dalmatic (Majorem Dalmaticam)
-Planeta (Chasuble)
In this order the district-Subdeacons then vest the Pope. A Deacon or Subdeacon chosen by the Pope will then take the Pallium from the Subdeacon-attendant and sets it about the Pope's shoulders, fastening it to the planeta behind, in front, and on his left shoulder by means of pins.
Subdeacon-Attendant: "Iube, domne, benedicere." (Grant, sir to bless.)
Pope: "Salvet nos Dominus." (May the Lord save us.)
Subdeacon-Attendant: "Amen."
One of the district-Subdeacons, with the Pope's mappula (maniple?) on his left arm over his unrolled planeta goes out:
District-Subdeacon: "Schola." (Choir!)
Choir: "Adsum." (Present.)
District-Subdeacon: "Quis psallet?" (Who shall sing the Psalm?)
Choir: "Ille et Ille." (N. and N.)
The Subdeacon will return to the Sacristy, present him the Mappula and bows to the Pope's knees, saying:
"Servi domni mei, talis Subdiaconus regionarius leget Apostolum, et talis de schola cantabit." (My lord's servants, N. the District-Subdeacon will read the Epistle, and N. of the Choir will sing.)
Note that after this announcement was made, no change can be made in who will read the Epistle or sing the Psalm or else the the Ruler of the Choir (Archiparaphonista, i.e. the Fourth of the Choir who always informs the Pontiff on matters that relate to the singers) will be excommunicated by the Pope.
The Subdeacon-attendant will then stand behind the Pope until the latter gestures to him that the Introit may be started. The Subdeacon-attendant will then go outside the Sacristy and say: "Accendite!" (Light up!) wherein the lights are then lighted. This done, the Subdeacon-attendant will take a golden Censer and put incense on it in front of the Sacristy Doors.
The Ruler of the Choir then passes through the presbytery to the Precentor ("first singer") or the Succentor (the second) or vice-Succentor, and bowing his head to him says: "Domne iubete." ("Command, sir.")
The Choir then rises up and pass in order before the Altar and the two rows then arrange themselves: the men-singers on either side without the doors of the presbytery, and the children on each side within. The Precentor then begins the Introit.

Psalm 138 [139])
1st Semi-chorus: "Resurrexi, et adhuc tecum sum, Alleluia: posuisti super me manum tuam, Alleluia: mirabilis facta est scientia tua, Alleluia." (I arose, and am still with Thee, Alleluia; Thou hast laid Thy hand upon me, Alleluia; Thy knowledge is become wonderful, Alleluia.)
2nd Semi-chorus: "Domine, probasti me, et cognovisti me: tu cognovisti sessionem meam, et resurrectionem meam." (Lord, Thou hast searched Me and known Me; Thou knowest my sitting down and My rising up.)
1st Semi-chorus: Resurrexi...etc.
2nd Semi-chorus: "Intellexisti cogitationes meas; de longe semitam meam et funiculum meum investigasti." (Thou hast understood my thoughts afar off: my path and my line Thou hast searched out.)
1st Semi-chorus: Resurrexi...etc.
When the Deacons hear the Introit, they go at once to the Sacristy. The Pope then rises and gives his right hand to the Archdeacon and the left to the second Deacon or whoever may be appointed; who, after kissing his hands, walk with him as his supporters.
Then the Subdeacon-attendant goes before him with the Censer; and Seven Acolytes of the Disctrict which is responsible for that day will go before the Pope to the Altar, carrying seven lighted candlesticks. (NOTA BENE: This is the ancestor of our custom of placing seven candles in the Altar during a Pontifical Mass)
Before they arrive at the Altar, the Deacons take their planeta off in the Presbytery and the district-Deacon takes them and gives each to an Acolyte of the district to which each Deacon belongs.
Two Acolytes then approach carrying open Pyxes containing Bread consecrated in the previous Mass, and the subdeacon-attendant, taking them, with his hand in the mouth of the Pyx, shows the Body to the Pope and the Deacon who goes before him, who bow their heads in salutation, and look at the Pyx in order that if there be too many fragments he may cause some of them to be put in the aumbry.
The Pope then makes his way to the Altar, but before he comes to the Choir the Acolytes carrying the Candles divide, four to the right and three to the left. The Pope passes between them to the upper part of the choir and bows his head to the Altar. He then rises up and prays, and makes the Sign of the Cross on his forehead; after which he gives the Kiss of Peace to one of the hebdomadary Bishops, and to the Archpresbyter, and to all the Deacons.
He then turns and signals to the Precentor to start singing the Gloria Patri. The precentor then bows to him and begins it. Meanwhile the Ruler of the Choir precedes the Pope in order to set his faldstool (oratorium) before the Altar, if it should be the season for it; and approaching it, the Pope prays thereat until the repetition of the verse [i.e. the anthem for the entry]:
"Gloria Patri, et Filio et Spiritui Sancto; Sicut erat in principio (The Deacons rise up in order to salute the sides of the Altar, two by two and return to the Pope. And then the Pope arises, kisses the Book of the Gospels and the altar, and, going to his throne, stands there facing Eastwards) et nunc, et in semper, et in saecula saeculorum. Amen."

"Resurrexi, et adhuc tecum sum, Alleluia: posuisti super me manum tuam, Alleluia: mirabilis facta est scientia tua, Alleluia."

A Reconstruction of the interior of St. Mary Major.

The Choir then starts to sing the Kyrie, alternating with the District officials.
During the singing the Precentor keeps his eye on the Pope, so that the latter may sign to him if he wishes to change the number of the Kyries, and bows to him:
Choir: "Kyrie Eleison."
District Officials: "Kyrie Eleison."
Choir: "Kyrie Eleison."
District Officials: "Christe Eleison."
Choir: "Christe Eleison."
District Officials: "Christe Eleison."
Choir: "Kyrie Eleison."
District Officials: "Kyrie Eleison."
Choir: "Kyrie Eleison."
(The number of times the Kyrie is sung is determined by the Pope, as mentioned above)

A place for the teaching and practice of ecclesiastical chant, or a body of singers banded together for the purpose of rendering the music in church. In the primitive Church the singing was done by the clergy, but, in order to set them free from this and enable them to give their attention more to what strictly pertained to their office, trained singers for the musical part of the liturgy were introduced. Pope Hilary (d. 438) is sometimes credited with having inaugurated the first schola cantorum, but it was Gregory the Great, as we are told in his life by John the Deacon, who established the school on a firm basis and endowed it. The house in which the schola was lodged was rebuilt in 844 by Pope Sergius II, who had himself been trained in it, as were also the popes Sergius I, Gregory II, Stephen III, and Paul I. This Roman school furnished the choir at most of the papal functions and was governed by an official called prior scholae cantorum or simply cantor.

The name given in later antiquity and the early Middle Ages to those clerics and officials of the Church of Rome who were attached neither to the papal palace or patriarchium, nor to the titular churches of Rome, but to whom one of the city regions, or wards, was assigned as their official district. For internal administration the city of Rome was a divided by the Emperor Augustus into fourteen regions.
From the fourth century developed (evidently in connection with the seven Roman deacons) an ecclesiastical division into seven regions, which gradually replaced the earlier civil divisions.
Many branches of the ecclesiastical administration were arranged in accordance with the seven regions-especially the care of the poor, provision for the maintenance of the churches, and whatever else pertained primarily to the office of the deacons, one of whom was appointed over each of the seven regions (diaconus regionarius).
As the deacons were assisted by seven subdeacons, we also find the term subdeaconus regionarius.
The notaries and defensores employed in the administration of the regions were also known as notarii regionarii and defensores regionarii. There is also occasional mention of acolyti regionarii.
Little is known about the functions exercised by these regionarii, as in general concerning the ecclesiastical administration in ancient Rome, in as far as it affected the regions.

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