An 11th-century fresco from the Basilica di San Clemente in Rome depicting a Mass. Note the maniple and the pallium.
THE EPISTLE, GRADUAL, ALLELUIA and THE GOSPEL (cf. The Mass as it was in the City of Rome, part 3, part 4)
4. The Collect ended, the Pontiff sits in his Throne, and the Deacons stand on either side; and the Choir turn back below the platform which is below the Ambo, and
the Subdeacons who stand below the screen go up to the Altar and stand on either side of it. Then the Pontiff signs to the priests (sacerdotes) to sit down in the Presbytery.
Then a Lesson is read from the Ambo by a Subdeacon. Then one of the Choir or an Acolyte, after removing his planeta, takes the Gradual and goes up into the ambo and says the respond: and another in like manner the Alleluia. At the conclusion of this, the Deacon bows to the Pontiff, and the latter orders him to read the Gospel; he then goes up to the altar, kisses the Gospel-Book and takes it up. Then the Pontiff rises from his Throne and all the Priests stand. And there go before the Deacon Subdeacons, one on the right, the other on the left, and two Acolytes carrying two candlesticks before him.
And when they arrive at the Ambo, the Subdeacon who is on his right offers him his left arm, and the Deacon rests the Gospel-Book on it while he finds the mark [for reading]. Then he goes up into the Ambo, while the Taperers turn back to stand before the Ambo; and then the Gospel is read.
5. After this the Subdeacon takes the Gospel-Book, and holds it leaning against his breast, below the Ambo, while all kiss the Book. Then he puts it back in its case. The Deacon returns to the Altar, and the Taperers go before him and put their candlesticks behind the Altar, as also the rest of the candlesticks.
If there should be a cloth (pallium) on the Altar, he folds it on one side towards the East, and the corporal is then spread over the Altar by the Deacons.
THE OFFERTORY (cf. The Mass as it was in the City of Rome part 5)
6. Then the Pontiff washes his hands, and rises from his Throne; and the Choir go back to the left side of the Presbytery. Then the Pontiff goes down, receive the offerings from the people, and the Archdeacon signs to the choir to say the Offertory-Anthem.
As the pontiff receives the loaves, he hands them to the Subdeacon, who puts them into a linen cloth held by the Acolytes who attend him. The Deacons receive the flasks of wine. The stational Chalice is carried by the district-subdeacon, and the Deacon pours the flasks into the holy Chalice itself; and when it is full, it is emptied into the bowls which the Acolytes carry. Then the Pontiff goes with the Deacons to the women's side, and they do the same there. He then goes back to his Throne, but the Deacons remain to receive the flasks of wine. In the meantime there stand before the Pontiff the Chancellor, the Secretary, the Notaries and District-officials, while the Presbyters are receiving loaves and flasks within the Presbytery, both from the men's side as well as the women's; and the Acolytes hold linen cloths and bowls to gather them in.
7. Then the Archdeacon washes his hands, and the rest of the Deacons wash their hands. Then the Acolytes hold the linen cloth with the loaves, which the Pontiff received from the people, at the right corner of the Altar: some of which the Subdeacon-Attendant selects and hands to a District-Subdeacon, who gives them to the Archdeacon. The latter places them upon the Altar in three or five rows, only so much as may suffice for the people, and remain from that time till the next day, according to canonical authority.
In the meantime the Chalice is held by the District-Subdeacon, and the Archdeacon takes the Pontiff's flask from the hand of the Oblationer and empties it into the holy Chalice; and in like manner the flasks of the Presbyters and those of the Deacons as well.
Then the Subdeacon holds a strainer over the Chalice, and the wine which the people offered and which is in the bowl is poured through it. Then one of the Choir brings an ewer with clean water in it, and gives it to the Oblationer, and the latter offers it to the Archdeacon, who takes it and pours it, making a Cross as he does so, into the holy Chalice which is held by the Subdeacon at the right corner of the Altar.
Then the Pontiff descends from his Throne, and comes before the Altar; and the Archdeacon receives the Pontiff's loaves from the subdeacon-oblationer, and hands them to the Pontiff, who sets them on the Altar. Then the Archdeacon takes the chalice from the Subdeacon and sets it on the Altar. The Pontiff then signs to the Choir to make an end to the Offertory-Anthem: and they turn back and stand before the platform.